English Grammar ( Pjesa e par) Gramatika e Gjuhs angleze


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    English Grammar ( Pjesa e par) Gramatika e Gjuhs angleze

    What is a noun?
    The definition of a noun is a word that is used to define a person, animal or living object, place, thing or quality.
    There are many different kinds of nouns in English.
    Common nouns - general nouns such as cat, bowl, hand, tree clock etc.
    Countable nouns - nouns that can be counted, such as car-cars, child-children etc.
    Uncountable nouns - nouns that can't be counted, such as water, fire, air etc.
    Collective nouns - nouns that refer to a group of things or people such as family, police, worker's union etc.
    Proper nouns - nouns that refer to a specific name of a person, corporation, company, product, such as IBM, Microsoft, Mr. David Green, Dr. Mary Jones.
    Concrete nouns - a noun that is a physical object, something that can be touched, seen, such as an animal, window, table, computer etc.
    Abstract nouns - is a noun is not a physical object, it can't be touched physically. They are ideas and feelings such as intelligence, love, hate, bravery etc.
    What are common nouns?
    A common noun is a noun that refers to a person, thing and place.
    Examples of common nouns: dog, house, picture, computer.
    Common nouns are represented in the singular and plural form.
    Common nouns are represented by lower case letters.
    Examples of the usage of common nouns: (The common nouns are highlighted in blue)
     The red book is on the table.
    *The black dog is in my yard.
    *The computers are new.

    What are countable nouns:
    A countable noun is a type of noun that can be:
    presented in both the singular form and the plural form
    represented by a number, such as two cats, five books
    Rules For Using Singular
    Countable Nouns Rules For Using Plural
    Countable Nouns
    1. A determiner must be used before noun(or adverb if adjectives are used, such as a, the, this, one, ours, his etc. 1.A determiner is optional before noun(or adverb if adjectives are used.
    2. The article "a" or :an" can be used. 2. The articles "a" or "an" can't be used.
    3.Only the number one can be used to state the amount. 3. Any number bigger then two can be used to state an amount.
    4. Possessive adjectives my be used such as my, his, our etc. 4.Possessive adjectives my be used such as his, our, etc.
    5. Quantifiers can't be used. 5. Quantifiers can be used, such as some, any, many, a lot etc.
    6. A demonstrative adjectives can be used such as this, those etc. 6. A demonstrative adjectives can be used such as this, those etc.
    Examples of Countable Nouns: * *
    Nouns Nouns In The Singular Form Nouns In The Plural Form Nouns Represented By A Number
    dog The dog is big. The dogs are big. There are six dogs in the room.
    boy The boy is tall. The boys are tall. There are three tall boys in my class.
    car Our car is green. All the cars at work are white. There are six cars parked on my street.
    window The window is big. The windows are clean. The room has three window.




    What are Uncountable nouns?
    Uncountable nouns are:
    1. Nouns that can not be represented in the singular form or the plural form, such as water, air, coffee, tea are some examples of nouns that can only be represented in the singular form.
    2. Nouns that can not be represented by a number are called uncountable nouns. It is not possible to say I need 4 air, or 6 sugar.
    3. Uncountable nouns are nouns that can not be counted. Examples of uncountable nouns are: water, air, grass, paint, oil etc.
    Rules for Using Uncountable Nouns:
    1. Uncountable nouns only used in the singular tense.
    2. A or an can not be used with uncountable nouns. "The" can be used with uncountable nouns.
    3. Certain quantifiers can be used with uncountable nouns, such as some, any, much, a lot are some examples of the quantifiers that can be used with uncountable nouns.
    4. Quaintly of uncountable nouns is expressed by the expression "a. ....of......". (Examples: a bag of sugar, a bottle of oil.
    What is a collective noun?
    1. Collective nouns are nouns that refer to things or people as a unit. Examples: family, police, class, team, crew etc.
    2. Collective nouns can be used in both the singular form and the plural form.
    Rules for Using Collective Nouns:
    Singular Collective Noun Plural Collective Nouns
    1. Singular collective nouns refer to one unit of people or things. 1. Plural collective nouns refer to two or more units of people or things.
    2. Singular collective nouns are used like singular nouns.
    2. Plural collective nouns are used like plural nouns.

    What are proper nouns?
    A proper nouns is a specific name of a place , a person, or a thing. The first letter of a proper noun is always represented by a capital letter.
    Proper Nouns in English
    1.Name of the Month and Day January, February, April etc.
    2. Names of Company's Microsoft, Amazon, Nike, etc.
    3. Names of People John, Mary, Bill, Mr. Brown, Mr. Lee, Mr. Tom Jones
    4. Names of Places Greentown Hospital, Town House Hotel, City Park etc.
    5. Titles of People Dr. Kenny White, President Jimmy Ayusso, Ms. Miri Thomas etc.
    6. Names's of Books, Newspapers, Plays etc. The New York Times, War and Peace, Midnight Summer Dream



    What is a concrete noun?
    Concrete nouns are:
    1. Concrete nouns can be touched, felt, held, something visible, smelt, taste, or be heard. Concrete nouns are something physical.
    2. Concrete nouns can be countable nouns or uncountable nouns, and singular nouns or plural nouns.
    3. Concrete nouns can also be a common noun, proper nouns and collective nouns.
    Examples of Concrete Nouns
    Common Concrete Nouns
    dog, cat, girl, plate air, water etc.
    Countable Concrete Nouns
    singular -chair, computer, song, window
    plural - chairs, computers, songs, windows
    Uncountable Concrete Nouns
    water, air, oil, sugar, salt, rice, cheese etc.
    Proper Nouns
    Mr. Mike Jones, Tom Brown, Audrey Ryan
    What is an abstract noun?
    There are diffrent types of nouns. All types of nouns follow the same grammar rules. When most people think of nouns, they think of people, places and things but abstract nouns are the opposite. Abstract nouns is something that can't be sensed by our five senses (smell, touth, hear, see or taste).
    Abstract nouns are nouns that:
    Abstract nouns are any nouns that can't be touched, tasted, seen, heard or smelt or felt.
    Abstract nouns usually represent feeling, ideas and qualities.
    Abstract nouns can be singular nouns and plural nouns.
    Abstract nouns can be countable or uncountable.
    Examples of abstract nouns: love, hate, violence, culture, taste


    * * * * * * * * * * * * PRONOUNS
    How to use pronouns?
    Pronouns replace the noun. A pronoun can be used as the sentences subject or the object. Most of the time a pronoun refers to something already mentioned or understood by the listener or reader.
    The different kinds of pronouns are:
    personal pronouns
    indefinite pronoun
    demonstrative
    reflexive pronoun
    interrogative pronouns

    What are Personal Pronouns?
    Personal Pronouns in English are used to replace nouns that refer to people. Personal Pronouns can be used as the sentences subject or objective. English doesn't have singular and plural forms of "you". "You" is used for both male and female and singular and plural.
    Example of Personal Pronouns
    Subject Personal Subject Objective Personal Pronouns The pronouns are used to replace the name of the people or person
    I - I went to the store. Me -Is Mary going to come with me to the doctor.
    You - You went to store. You - Did you are Mary eat all the cookies.
    He - He went to the store. Him - John is going to give him the books soon.
    She - She went to the store Her - Mary is going to give her the books soon.
    We - We went to the store. Us - When is Tom going to give us the books.
    They - They went to the store. Them - Mary went to see them this morning.
    It - It was a good cake It - I am glad it worked out in the end.
    What are reflexive pronouns?
    Reflexive pronouns are pronouns that are used to state the subject is performing the action.
    The reflexive pronoun can be used to emphasize the object or the subject.
    Reflexive Pronouns
    Myself I
    Ourselves We
    Themselves Them
    Yourselves You
    Herself She
    Himself He
    Examples:
    1. I lived myself while I was studying for my bachelors degree.
    2. My sister paid for university herself. Our father didn't help her out.
    3. We wanted to travel to Europe by yourself after we finished university.
    4. Are you going to drive yourselves to school today?



    What are Intensive pronouns?
    Intensive pronouns are:
    Pronouns that refer to the noun or pronouns.
    Intensive pronouns are used to emphasize the subject.
    Intensive pronouns are used when the subject isn't performing the action.
    It is common for intensive pronouns are usually next to the subject.
    The intensive pronouns are not the subject.
    Intensive Pronouns
    Myself I
    Ourselves We
    Themselves Them
    Yourselves You
    Herself She
    Himself He
    Examples:
    1. My sister herself is going to teach the undergraduate class.
    2. I myself have two bachelors degrees.
    3. We ourselves studied for the test.
    What are relative pronouns?
    A defining relative clause states defining information about a person or a thing. It is used to define one object/thing or a person from another. Without this information the sentence would not be clear.
    Relative Pronouns
    - Time Reason Person Place Thing
    Subject -- -- Who, That Where That, Which
    Object When Why Who/Whom/That - That, Which
    Possessive Whose - Whose - Whose
    Note: The relative pronoun replaces the noun.
    Examples:
    1. Who is that man in there street?
    2. Whose husband is that waiting in the car?
    3. Is that cake good?
    4. When are you going to call her?
    5. Why are you so tired?
    6. Which house is yours?

    * *

















    * * * * * * * * * * *ADVERBS
    What are adverbs?
    An adverb is a word or a group of words that are used to help define the action of the verb. Adverbs can also be used to define adjectives, or other adverbs.
    How to tell if a word is an adverb?
    A word is an adverb if it answers one of the three questions, when, where or how.
    Examples: * *
    Examples of English Adverbs that state when, where and how
    When Where How
    I have to study today. I like to read under the trees in the park. I should exercise carefully.
    My mother always listens to the radio. Our teacher rarely gives us a lot of worksheets to do. My brother study very hard for all his exams.
    Our teacher is really good this year. We learned to play the piano quickly. We had a really good teacher. The students and teachers work closely on the project.
    In most cases adverbs are created by added -ly to the end of an adjective. Some common adverbs are quietly, quickly, beautifully etc.
    Spelling rules of adverbs:
    Adjectives that end in y - change the -i to -y as easy-easily, happy-happily
    1. Adjectives ending -y change to -ily; lucky-luckily
    2. Adjectives ending -ble only -y is added; present -presentably, respectable -respectably.


    What are frequency adverbs?
    Frequency adverbs are adverbs that state how often something happens or someone does something.
    What is the grammatical structure frequency adverbs?
    In geranal requencey adverbs are used just like any other adverb. They come before the main verb, except if the main verb is the verb "to be" then adverbs comes after the verb.
    Below is a chart a frequency adverbs, the numbers after the adverbs will give you an idea of the how often an event would take place.
    Frequency Adverbs
    Always 100%
    nearly/almost always 90%
    Usually 80%
    Very Often/Frequently 70%
    Often 60%
    Sometimes 50%
    Occasionally 40%
    Almost never/ever 20%
    Seldom/Almost never 10%
    Never 0%
    Positive and Negative Sentences without the verb "to be"
    1. Frequency adverbs are used in positive sentences and negative sentences. The frequency adverbs are placed after the main verb (if the main verb is not the verb "to be).
    Examples:
    1. I always walk to school
    2. My cats sometimes like to play
    3. Our teacher almost never gives us a lot of homework.
    4. The teacher doesn't always come on time.
    5. My cats don't always like to play with my socks.
    6. I don't often walk to school.


    Positive and Negative Sentence with the verb "to be"
    2. Frequency Adverbs are used in positive sentences and negative sentences. The frequency adverb is placed before the main verb if the main verb is the Verb "to be".
    The teacher is always on time.
    My sister is never lazy.
    Our house is sometimes a mess.
    My brother's house is never a mess.
    The sofa is always fun to sit on.
    Questions without the verb "to be" as the main verb
    3. When questions use the verb "to be" as the main verb the frequency adverb is placed after the subject.
    Does she always walk to work?
    Why does the oven always stop working after 10 minutes?
    Do you always clean the sofa every day?
    4. Questions with the verb "to be" as the main verb. In question when the main verb is the verb "to be" the frequency adverb is placed after the subject.
    Is the food always so bad?
    Are your children ever late for school?
    Are the clocks always broken?
    Usage of Frequency Adverbs:
    Positive sentences with the frequency adverb
    Subject Auxiliary Verb (if need) Frequency Adverb Main Verb Continue the Sentence
    I - always walk to work.
    We - often eat meat on Saturday night.
    My cats - sometimes sleep in their beds.
    She has never been to China.
    He has always wanted live in Paris.
    They will never use the old computers in the basement.
    1. Adverbs of frequency are used in positive sentences. The frequency adverb is placed after the main verb (if the main verb is not the verb "to be).
    Examples:
    I always walk to school.
    My cats sometimes like to play.
    Our teacher almost never gives us a lot of homework.
    2. Adverbs of frequency are used in positive sentences. The frequency adverb is placed before the main verb if the main verb is the Verb "to be"
    Positive and Negative Sentences without the verb "to be"
    1. Frequency adverbs are used in positive sentences and negative sentences. The frequency adverb is placed after the main verb (if the main verb is not the verb "to be).
    Examples:
    I always walk to school
    My cats sometimes like to play
    Our teacher almost never gives us a lot of homework.
    The teacher doesn't always come on time.
    My cats don't always like to play with my socks.
    I don't often walk to school.
    Positive and Negative Sentence with the verb "to be"
    2. Frequency Adverbs are used in positive sentences and negative sentences. The frequency adverb is placed before the main verb if the main verb is the Verb "to be".
    The teacher is always on time.
    My sister is never lazy.
    Our house is sometimes a mess.
    My brother's house is never a mess.
    The sofa is always comfoftable to sit on.
    Questions without the verb "to be" as the main verb
    3. In question when the main verb is not "to be". the frequency adverb is placed before the main verb.
    Does she always walk to work?
    Why does the oven always stop working after 10 minutes?
    Do you always clean the sofa every day?
    4. In questions when the verb "to be" as the main verb. In question when the main verb is the verb "to be" the frequency adverb is placed after the subject?
    Is the food always so bad?
    Are your children ever late for school?
    Are the clocks always broken?

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    English Grammar ( Pjesa e dyt) Gramatika e Gjuhs angle


    ADJECTIVE
    What are adjectives?
    Adjectives are word that are used to clarify a noun.
    Adjectives can me one word or a group of words.
    Adjectives are sometimes used with certain verbs (such as the verb "to be"). Adjectives are used to clarify the subject that is doing the action.
    Adjectives are used to describe color, material, shape, size, amount, price, quality, origin, personality, weight, temperature, weight, age, direction, etc.
    Adjectives usage
    Adjectives are placed before the noun.
    Adjectives can be used with all forms of nouns (see nouns).
    Examples:
    Adjectives with nouns:
    My teacher is really nice.
    I was teaching in a really big high school, while I was going working on my master's degree.
    The university that my oldest brother is going to is really nice.
    The English teacher gave us a hard project.
    Adjective with verbs:
    The teacher is tall and thin.
    Our proffessor is a really nice man.
    How are adjectives used with verbs?
    There are times when an adjective is placed after the verb. This is more common when the verb being used is a "linking verb". In this case it is common that an adjective is used with with the "linking verb", but the adjective doesn't describe the verb. The adjective descrives the subject that is performing the action. Adjectives are not used to describe the verb.
    Examples:
    The cake looks good.
    Your hair looks great. Where did you get your hair cut.
    My mother lost her keys.
    The boys play ball all the time.
    When using a adjectives and verb together, the adjectives comes after the verb. There are times when one adjective is not enough to describe the noun or the subject that is performing the action. When 2 or more adjectives are used together then there is a specific order of the adjectives that is usually followed. Please see multiple adjectives.
    It is importatnt is understand if an adjective is need or if a adverb is needed. There is an easy way to tell. Do I need to define the verb of the sentnece or do I need to define the subject that is performing the action.
    Example:
    Your hair grew slowly.
    The dog grew angry.
    The boys talk loudly.
    My brother talks big.
    The order of more then 2 adjectives in a sentence.
    In most cases the adjective is placed before the noun.
    There is an order that is used when using more then 2 adjectives together. The order in some cases can be changed, but it is a good guidlines for ESL and EFL students that are learning English.
    It is not common to used more then 3 adjectives together, but it is possible and can be grammatically correct.
    When there are 2 or more adjectives that are from the same group* "and" is placed between the 2 adjectives.
    When there are 3 or more adjectives from the same adjective group, then a comma is placed between the are from the same group.*. A comma is not placed between an adjective and a noun.
    When an article is used such as "a", "an" or "the" the articles are placed before the adverb. The article must agree with the noun grammatically.
    The adjectives must agree with the noun grammatically.
    *The 9 different adjective groups are listed below.
    The order of the adjectives is as followed:
    1. Determiner - a, an, her, five, many, much several etc.
    2. Opinion - pretty, ugly, smart, cheap, etc.
    3. Size - big, fat, thin, tall, large, small etc.
    4. Shape - circle, square, tall, short etc.
    5. Age - old, young 10 years, a year, a week, new etc.
    6. Color - yellow, green, pink etc.
    7. Origin - American, English, Asian, Middle Eastern, African, European, Chinese etc.
    8. Material - cotton, wood, plastic, cloth, glass, gold etc.
    9. Purpose/Qualifier -
    10. hat box, sleeping bag, computer table,safe island, football field. (The words in green are the purpose/qualifer words.)
    Examples:
    1. The big black dog ate my food.
    2. I like that pretty green sofa.
    3. I want to go to a big, quit, safe.
    4. We sleep in a small, pink and green room.
    It is very common to use adjectives with nouns. Adjectives are used to describe the noun.
    There are different groups of adjectives:
    Option - this group of adjectives are used to describe an option of someone or something. It is not a fact. It can't be proven to be correct or incorrect.
    Examples:
    I think that the store is great.
    We like good books.
    The girls like children's programs on the T.V.
    Facts - this group of adjectives are used to describe.
    Determiners are also adjectives.
    There is a specific order for adjectives. Determiners, option and facts.
    What are comparative adjectives?
    Comparative adjectives are used to clerify the difference between 2 objects/nouns. .
    Comparative adjectives are used to compare 2 nouns.
    To state that one noun has more of something then the 2nd noun.
    Note: Superlative adjectives are used to compare 3 or more nouns.
    Examples:
    The black dog is older than the white dog.
    My house is bigger than my sister's house.
    The yellow hat is more expansive than the green hat.
    The Rules for using Comparative A
    How to Use Comparative Adjectives
    "Than" is usually usually used after the comparative adjective.
    -er is added to the end of a 1-syllable adjective cold - colder
    small - smaller
    tall - taller The winter is colder than the summer.
    The green hat is smaller than the yellow hat.
    Most basketball players are taller than me.
    -er is added to the end of an adjective with 2 syllables, if the word ends in -y. early - earlier
    happy - happier
    crazy - crazier I came home earlier than my sister.
    I am happier now than 1 year ago.
    My friend is crazier than me.
    "more" is used for words that have 2 syllables, if the word doesn't end in -y.
    adjectives that end in -y, change the -y to i and add -ed honest - more honest
    difficult- more difficult
    modern - more modern The policeman are more honest than criminals.
    The last test was more difficult than the test today.
    Our generation is more modern, than our parents generation
    "more is used for words that have 3 or more syllables expensive - more expensive
    difficult - more difficult
    comfortable - more comfortable
    adjectives that end in -e, only -r is added to end of the adjective nice -nicer
    safe -safer
    adjective that end in a consonant, vowel, consonant - the last consonant is doubled big -bigger
    fat- fatter
    hot -hotter My house is bigger than, my sisters house.
    My sister is fatter than me.
    The summer is hotter than the winter.
    What are comparative adjectives?
    Comparative adjectives are used to clerify the difference between 2 objects/nouns. .
    Comparative adjectives are used to compare 2 nouns.
    To state that one noun has more of something then the 2nd noun.
    Note: Superlative adjectives are used to compare 3 or more nouns.
    Examples:
    The black dog is older than the white dog.
    My house is bigger than my sister's house.
    The yellow hat is more expansive than the green hat.
    The Rules for using Comparative A
    How to Use Comparative Adjectives
    "Than" is usually usually used after the comparative adjective.
    -er is added to the end of a 1-syllable adjective cold - colder
    small - smaller
    tall - taller The winter is colder than the summer.
    The green hat is smaller than the yellow hat.
    Most basketball players are taller than me.
    -er is added to the end of an adjective with 2 syllables, if the word ends in -y. early - earlier
    happy - happier
    crazy - crazier I came home earlier than my sister.
    I am happier now than 1 year ago.
    My friend is crazier than me.
    "more" is used for words that have 2 syllables, if the word doesn't end in -y.
    adjectives that end in -y, change the -y to i and add -ed honest - more honest
    difficult- more difficult
    modern - more modern The policeman are more honest than criminals.
    The last test was more difficult than the test today.
    Our generation is more modern, than our parents generation
    "more is used for words that have 3 or more syllables expensive - more expensive
    difficult - more difficult
    comfortable - more comfortable
    adjectives that end in -e, only -r is added to end of the adjective nice -nicer
    safe -safer
    adjective that end in a consonant, vowel, consonant - the last consonant is doubled big -bigger
    fat- fatter
    hot -hotter My house is bigger than, my sisters house.
    My sister is fatter than me.
    The summer is hotter than the winter.
    The building structure of comparative adjectives:
    Comparative adjectives are divided into 2 groups "short words" and "long words".
    Note: "Than" is usually usually used after the comparative adjective.
    Short words - words with 1 syllable or words with 2 syllables if the word ends in -y. -er is added to the end of the word.
    Notes:
    Adjectives ending in -y; change the -y to -i and add -er.
    Adjectives that end with a consonant, vowel, consonant - the last consonant is doubled and -er is added to the end of the adjective.
    Examples
    cold - colder
    small - smaller
    tall - taller early - earlier
    happy - happier
    crazy - crazier big -bigger
    fat- fatter
    hot -hotter
    Long words - words with 3 more syllables, and words with 2 syllables that don't end in -y. The word "more" is placed before the adjective.
    Note: Adjectives that end in -e, only -r is added to end of the adjective.
    Examples
    honest - more honest
    difficult- more difficult
    modern - more modern expensive - more expensive
    difficult - more difficult
    comfortable - more comfortable
    What are superlative adjectives?
    Superlative adjectives are used to define the highest degree of a noun. Superlative adjectives are used only if 3 or more things or people are being compared.
    Examples:
    The black dog is the biggest.
    The house at the end of the street is the nicest.
    My mother's pizza is the best.
    Superlative Adjectives Usage - Stucture of the SuperLative Adjectives - Formation SuperLative Adjectives
    What building structure of superlative adjectives?
    The building structure of superlative adjectives are divided into 2 groups "short words" and "long words".
    Short words - words with 1 syllable or words with 2 syllables if the word ends in -y. -est is added to the end of the word.
    o Notes:
     Adjectives ending in -y change the -y to I and add -est.
     Adjective that end with a consonant, vowel, consonant - the last consonant is doubled and -est is added to the end of the adjective.
    Examples
    early - earliest
    happy - happiest
    crazy - craziest nice -nicest
    safe -safest big -biggest
    fat- fattest
    hot -hottest
    Long words - words with 3 more syllables, and words with 2 syllables that don't end in -y. The word "most" is placed before the adjective.
    Note: Adjectives that end in -e, only -r is added to end of the adjective.
    Examples
    honest - most honest
    difficult- most difficult
    modern - more modern expensive - most expensive
    difficult - most difficult
    comfortable - most comfortable
    The Formation of superlative adjectives:
    o In English, -est is added to the end of the adjective.
    o In English, "the" is almost always used before the superlative adjectives.
    *
    English Superlative Adjectives Rules
    -est is added to the end of an adjective1-syllable word cold - coldest
    small - smallest
    tall - tallest This winter is the coldest, that I can remember.
    The green hat is the smallest hat in the store.
    I am the tallest, in my class
    Change the y to an -i.and add -est to the end of an adjective with 2 syllables, if the word ends in -y. early - earliest
    happy - happiest
    crazy - craziest Today is the earliest that I came home all week.
    She is the happiest, I have been seen her.
    I have the craziest dog, I have ever seen.
    "most" is used for words that have 2 syllables, if the word doesn't end in -y.
    adjectives that end in -y, change the -y to i and add -ed honest - most honest
    difficult- most difficult
    modern - more modern The policeman are the most honest people that I know.
    The last test was the most difficult.
    Our generation is the most modern.
    "most is used for words that have 3 or more syllables expensive - most expensive
    difficult - most difficult
    comfortable - most comfortable That is the most expensive dress in the store.
    This problem is the most difficult, that I have had to solve in my life.
    These shoes are the most comfortable.
    Adjectives that end in -e, only -r is added to end of the adjective. nice -nicest
    safe -safest Your family is the nicest that I have ever met.
    This car is the safest on the market.
    Adjective that end in a consonant, vowel, consonant - the last consonant is doubled and -est is added to the end of the adjective. big -biggest
    fat- fattest
    hot -hottest My house is the biggest on the block.
    My sister is the fattest in the school.
    The summer is the hottest time of the year.
    * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *PREPOSITIONS
    What are prepositions?
    Prepositions are words that specify place, direction, and time. There are three types of prepositions.
    Time Prepositions - Time prepositions define time. Time prepositions - In - At - On For - During - While
    Place Propositions - Place prepositions clarify the place someone or somebody. Place Prepositions - In - On -At
    Direction Prepositions - Direction prepositions are used to clarify the direction of someone or something. Examples: under, over, right, left etc.
    How to use a prepositions?
    1. The prepositions usually comes before the noun.
    2. Prepositions can be used with all forms of nouns (e.g. collective nouns, pronouns etc).
    3. Prepositions can't come after a verb, but can be used before a gerund or verb in noun form.
    4. The rules above do not change and there are no exceptions to the rules.
    Prepositions of place are used to clarify a specific place. Place prepositions are used with all nouns. The preposition usually comes before the noun or the pronoun. The preposition never comes before a verb.
    Common Place Prepositions:
    aboard - She is aboard the boat.
    above - The picture is above the sofa.
    across - My house is across the street.
    against - The desk is against the wall.
    around - My house is around the block.
    at - Is your house at the end of the street.
    at the back of - We are going to sit at the back of the theater.
    at the bottom of - The coins are at the bottom of the lake.
    at the top of - The books are at the top of the shelves.
    between - We sit between the two boys.
    behind - The girls sit behind the two boys.
    below - The desk is below the window
    by - The books are by the door.
    in - I live in the big green and white house.
    inside - I live inside the big green house.
    on the corner of - We live on the corner of 3rd avenue
    in the middle of - We live in the middle of the street.
    near - I don't live near the supermarket.
    next to - I live next to my best friend.
    to the left of - The blue box is to the left of the green box.
    to the right of - The orange box is to the right of the yellow box.
    on - The sun heater is on the top of the building.
    on the side of - There is a big sign on the side of the house.
    on top of - There is a man on the top of the roof.
    on the other side of - Do you see what is going on over there on the other side of the roof?
    opposite - The post office is on the opposite side of the street.
    outside - The car is outside the garage.
    under - The blanket is under the bed in a box..
    underneath - The pen is underneath the box.
    Time prepositions are used to define time. Prepositions usually come before a noun or pronoun. Prepositions never come after a verb.
    after - I will be there after work.
    around - We will be there around 3 PM
    before - I will be there before I go to school.
    between - I will be there
    by - I will be there by the time that you leave for work.
    during - I will be there during your class.
    for - I will be there for your birthday.
    past - I wasn't there for the past 2 months.
    since - I didn't see her since I was 10 years old.
    until - I will not be home until 7:00 PM.
    within - I will be there within 2 hours.
    Time prepositions are used to clarity what time an event happened or will happen. Time prepositions are used nouns and pronouns. Prepositions usually come before nouns or pronouns. Prepositions never come before a verb. List of Time Prepositions
    At On In
    a specific time days and dates period of time - years, months, seasons
    at 2:00 on my birthday in a few days
    at lunchtime on the first day of the school year in a couple of months
    at 4:00 AM on 11/10/90 in the summer
    IMPORTANT: In English we say
    o in the morning -because it is considered a period of time
    o in the afternoon
    o in the evening
    o at night -
    Note: We say in the morning, in the afternoon, or in the evening BUT we say 'at night'
    What are place prepositions?
    Place prepositions , are prepositions that are used to describe the place or position of all types of nouns. It is common for the preposition to be placed before the noun. When we refer to Place prepositions we usually refer to "in", "at" and "on".
    In - Is usually used to state that someone or something is in a (the boundaries can be physical or virtual place.
    On - Is usually used to state someone or something is on top of a surface.
    At - Is usually used to state something or someone is at a specific place.
    A list of most prepositions of place.
    At On In
    a specific place a place that is physically on top of a place a place that is enclosed or within boundaries
    at the mall on the table in the city
    at the table on the floor in the box
    at work on the wall in the park
    IMPORTANT: In English we say:
    o on the island
    o in the city/country side
    o in the mountains - except when you mean that something or someone is physically on the mountain.
    o at the office
    Place Prepositions Quiz *- * Good Luck!
    1. *I am *work.

    2. We are sitting *the park. It is a nice day.

    3. My car is parked *the parking lot.

    4. Our house is *the end of the street.

    5. My sister lives *the 6th floor.

    6. The books are *the bag.

    7. The books are *the table.

    8. There are a lot of books *the library.

    9. I called their house, but nobody is *home.

    10. There is a beautiful picture *the wall.

    11. The clock fell *floor. I have to pick it up.

    12. Come sit *the table. It is time to eat.

    13. There is a lot of food *the refrigerator

    14. The cookies are *the top shelf.

    15. The computer is *the table.

    16. The horse is *the stables.

    17. Is your name *the mailbox?

    18. Are your children *the 2nd grade?

    19. Are your children *t heir grandmother's house.

    20 Is someone going to wait for me *the door?
    Time Prepositions Quiz
    Quiz
    1. *Monday I have to go to the doctor .


    2. * 3:00 PM we are going home.


    3. My birthday is *Tuesday.


    4. *an hour my sister is coming home.


    5. Dinner will be ready *2 hours.


    6. The train will be here *a few mintues.


    7. Please come *the morning.


    8. Nobody is home *the weekend.


    9. There is a party *the 4 of July.


    0. We have a test *3 days.

    How are prepositions - for - while - during used?
    The 3 most common English prepositions that are used to represent time are: for - while - during.
    For - The preposition "for" is used to express how long something or someone is doing something. "For" is used to state a period of time and is usually used with a noun/pronoun (or any other form of nouns) .
    o I have been riding my bicycle for 2 hours.
    o The dog has been barking for a long time.
    o The traffic has been bad for the last three days.
    While - The preposition "while" is used to represent the length of time an action has been happening.
    "While" is used when speaking about 2 actions that are happing at the same time. The length of the action is not important.
    "While" is used with a subject and a verb.
    o While I was playing with my dog, my sister was doing her homework.
    o While we are playing cards, the radio was playing.
    o My mother doesn't like the T. V. on while we are eating dinner.
    During -The preposition "during" is used to represent the length of time of an action that is while the action is happening.
    "During" is used with a noun/pronoun (or any other form of nouns).
    o I will be really busy during the week.
    o The kids were sleeping during the party.
    o The lights went out during the storm.
    Prepositions - for - during - while
    Quiz
    1. I am going away *you are in school.


    2. How long is your class *?


    3. My neighbors asked me to watch their cats *they are in China.


    4. Where are you living *you are in the United States?

    5. The children have been playing *over an hour.


    6. I felt sick *the lesson.


    7. My mother works *the week.


    8. My husband cleans the house, *I am at work.

    9. The baby sleeps *the night.


    10. We have to go out *a few hours.

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